Owing to the increasingly complex designs of today’s technology, printed circuit boards have evolved into increasingly complex electronic structures. A printed circuit board today may consist of multiple layers or substrates.

This article will simplify a PCB into three types.

Single-sided Board

pcb-assemblyThe simplest of printed circuit board designs is the single-sided board. This type of circuit board has only one layer of substrate. This means the design of the printed circuit board is simplified into two sides. The first side is where the printed circuit boards’ components are soldered on. The components are connected to the circuit board through their terminals which are soldered onto the substrate. This is to provide permanent connection between the transistors and the copper tracks of the circuit board. But in a single-sided board, the copper tracks are printed on the other side. To establish a connection with the transistors on the other side, there are vias or holes that are drilled through the circuit board. The vias allow the transistors to pass through the board and make direct contact with the copper tracks.

Double-sided Board

Another design type of printed circuit board is the double-sided board. This design still only has a single layer of substrate. However, instead of having a component side and copper track side, both sides of the single substrate are printed with copper tracks. Both sides can also house different components. The copper tracks printed on each side may or may not be connected to each other, depending on the intended design of the electronic circuit. Should the design require electric current to flow on both sides of the single substrate, vias can be integrated into the design of the circuit board.

Multi-sided Board

Finally, the third type of printed circuit board is the multi-sided board. These circuit boards are used for more advanced and complex circuit designs wherein a number of electronic components are required. Because it is multi-layered, this design can accommodate a significantly higher component density. A multi-sided board has three or more sides with printed copper tracks. To achieve this, double-sided board designs are usually connected together to form multiple substrates. If the design requires the different sides of copper tracks to be connected together, vias may be integrated into the design. However, since some substrates and layers are not readily accessible because they are sandwiched between other substrates, microvias are used to form electronic connections.

Typical vias form a straight hole through all of the substrates. Microvias are not full vias though they allow connections between substrates. A blind via is a microvia that is accessible to the outermost substrate but terminates in-between substrates. On the other hand, a buried via is not accessible and cannot be seen as it is embedded between substrates and allows sandwiched copper sides to connect with each other.

Flexible and Flexi-Rigid Boards

Common printed circuit boards are usually made of glass with reinforced plastic or FR-4 glass epoxy. However, innovations in design and development have led to the creation of flexible and semi-flexible boards to suit a wide range of applications, like non-traditional and non-conventional product designs.
Basically, instead of being made with the rigid FR-4 glass epoxy, these new variations of printed circuit boards are made of conductor layers printed on dielectric film and or coverlay’s/semi flexible liquid photo imageable solder resist.


Without a doubt, these types of boards hold many advantages over rigid designs like lighter construction, smaller space, and reduced interconnecting problems. In addition, flexible and flexi-rigid designs are also cheaper to produce and can be molded to suit all sorts of designs.

The Popularity Of Storage Containers


It’s all about portability nowadays, from barbecue grills to portable homes. In the latter, storage containers are important as – in most mobile homes – they serve as the main shell that one can build on. A container – whether one buys it or rents it – is highly convenient.

Why are storage containers becoming more popular and why do they answer any company or individual’s storage problems?


When it comes to storage, especially for businesses that want to keep track of inventory, security is important when considering portable storage options. The best storage containers for security are containers made of steel and come with security options like tamper-proof lock boxes. A lot of container companies allow customers their own security measures, whether they are multiple padlock spaces or digital security devices.


The storage container offers the option of versatility. Having to choose what to store, where one stores items, and how long those items will be stored are some of the primary reasons why people opt for portable containers instead of moving trucks. The convenience of storage containers offered by companies are improving constantly so an individual or a business would find a storage solution that would suit their requirements.


One of storage containers’ reasons is keeping the weather elements away. Storage facilities like storage containers are resistant to nature and – in some cases – are even insured against them. When renting or buying storage containers, here are some factors that one needs to consider.

1. What will be stored in the storage container?

There are companies that offer various storage unit sizes for all types of storage needs. There are containers that store even an item as small as a bicycle and there are storage units that store the contents of a house.

2.  Where are the storage units going to be placed?

The first thing a client should do is deciding where to place the storage unit. A lot of container companies offer their own storage yards for a customer’s convenience or the company would also deliver the container to the customer’s desired location.

3. How long will a storage unit be needed?

There are many container companies that offer short-term and long-term storage solutions. In all, one has to properly plan a project and considering storage options is important in the planning process.

Being Cost-Effective

Many people might think that a storage container is a frivolous accessory to purchase or rent. However, if a person thinks about the storage solutions that will be paid for during resettlement or moving, the person would find out that a storage unit is perhaps the most efficient storage solution.

Useful in Home Renovation or Remodeling

Household items could be damaged during ongoing renovations in one’s home. A wise homeowner would temporarily store them in storage facilities onsite or offsite. This is why container companies offer temporary storage solutions for individuals.


Storagecontainers are useful when a homeowner is permanently transferring from one house to another. Storage units make the moving job very efficient. At a homeowner’s request, storage companies deliver storage containers to a homeowner’s place. The owner then stores his or her items. After everything is packed away, the owner then requests the storage company to transport his or her belongings to the new home.

Storage containers can also be used to store items during home staging. If a homeowner is attempting to sell the house while he or she is still living in it, the homeowner can choose to keep ‘undesirable’ items away in a storage container. This way, prospective home buyers would not have to see the clutter in the house they would buy in the near future. Using a storage unit and store clutter makes the home very attractive to prospective buyers.

The above items are the reasons why portable storage containers are important. They answer the storage need of any individual or business establishment.



Essential Information About Challenge Coins According to

The practice of giving and receiving challenge coins has long been held in high regard in organizations, particularly branches of the military.  These days, the practice of giving challenge coins as a significant piece of memorabilia or memento has also been picked up by top corporations.

If you are new to the concept of challenge coins and you’re looking for more information,, a leading manufacturer of customized challenge coins, is here to break it down for you. is trusted not only by every branch of the United States Armed Services, but also by leading companies such as Colt, UPS, American Airlines, United Nations Development Fund (UNDP) and Symantec.

The Meaning Behind Challenge Coins

The practice of giving challenge coins can be traced back to the military campaigns of the mighty Roman Empire.  Legends say that they are given to the soldier who did exemplary work.

The history of challenge coins has always been connected to military service, but these days, its significance extends beyond the military.

Military Coins

If you are part of an organization, having a challenge coin means a lot of things.
First, it means loyalty and pride.  Owning a specially customized challenge coin means that you are a committed member of a certain group.  Aside from military branches and units, these items can also be made for fire and police departments, and sports teams. works with organizations in customizing their logos and adding special touches, such as texts or important images.  This creates a detailed piece that you can carry with pride.

Challenge coins also signify camaraderie and teamwork.  Owning a challenge coin creates a special bond with teammates and other members of the group.  In social situations, some members bring out their coins to validate membership to the group. It is used to build good relationships and strengthen bonds among group members.
Challenge coins are also used to celebrate personal accomplishments.  Bearing in mind their military past, these items are still given as incentives to people who do exemplary work for the organization, which they are a part of.  It is a reward given to honor hard work and dedication.

Challenge coins can also encourage members of the group and boost their morale.  Sports teams benefit from owning these items.  Team members who own these coins are reminded of holding on to their team spirit, which causes them to strive hard to be successful.

Many organizations also use challenge coins to raise awareness to certain important issues.  They serve as means to communicate important messages to the public.
If you own a challenge coin, it also means that you value being part of a certain group of people.  It serves as a valuable keepsake and memorabilia. Owning this significant memento means a whole lot to people.



Types of Challenge Coins

Challenge coins may be created for Federal Government agencies, military branches or even smaller military units, local police and fire departments, sports teams, academic institutions, interest groups, fraternities, civic clubs and corporations.
Challenge coins come in various sizes. Typically, they come in 1.5 inches in diameter to 3 inches in diameter.  You can choose from various design options offered by companies.

Military coins usually include the logo, and the name of the branch or unit.  They are typically given to members to symbolize the camaraderie and teamwork of the group, and celebrate their shared experiences. For some unit members, owning a challenge coin is like a badge of identification.  We, at, create coins for all branches of the United States military.  Check out the beautiful samples of coins that they helped design and manufacture for the Air Force, Coast Guard, Marine, Navy, and Army units.

Police challenge coins symbolize membership to certain elite units such as SWAT teams, bomb disposal teams, special detectives, or even major crime units. Firefighter coins, on the other hand, signify membership to a certain fire department.  Most fire departments opt to put the symbol of St. Florian on their coins.  Police and fire departments also use challenge coins to give out to the public for their fundraising events.  Those from renowned police forces and fire brigades fetch for hundreds of dollars when sold to collectors.

Corporate challenge coins usually have their company name or logo on display, and are typically given as incentives or keepsakes to employees.

Tips in Ordering Patches

There are various ways on how you can reproduce your logo in stitches. Embroidered patches are among the most effective and least costly options that you can choose. This is a great way to increase brand awareness and is also a good marketing strategy. If you want your brand or organization to be more established, this is one of the most important things that you should not miss. However, it is best to learn more about these custom embroideries before placing your orders. This is to ensure that you will get the best out of your orders. You can simply follow these tips and be well on your way.

You have to understand and remember that the process of manufacturing patches takes time. This is the reason why you need to spare plenty of time for the processing and delivery of your orders. All our clients are mindful of the quality of each patch they order, which is why we see to it that each patch we produce is of high quality to meet their requirements. Creating something of high quality is time consuming.

On this process, both the clients and the manufacturer need to have patience:

The first step in purchasing these custom items is designing. After deciding what to put on each of your patch, we will provide you a free quote. If you have your own designs, you can simply submit it to us. It is usually best to just copy the exact artwork you want your patches to have. This can shorten the duration of time it needs for us to finalize your designs.



If you don’t know how to create your own designs, give us a description of how you want the output to look like. It is crucial to know when you will already need the help of a graphic artist. We will then create a digital version of that image and submit it to you for your approval. Once approved, we will create an embroidered sample of that certain design. The image of the sewn sample will then be submitted to you.

We will not start manufacturing your orders unless you approve our sewn sample:

This is to ensure that you will get just what you expect. Usually, clients have to wait for a couple of weeks for their orders to be processed and after that, be shipped. If you are in a hurry or if you do not have that much time to wait for your orders to arrive, then rest assured that we also accept rush orders.

If you want your orders to be finished as soon as possible without opting for a rush order, it is best to avoid art revisions. This is the reason why we advise our clients to be specific on their designs so we can both save time and effort. If you are still planning to purchase these custom embroideries, it is important not to forget about the duration of time it takes for the process to be completed.



If you are on a budget, it is wise to minimize the things you put on your design:

If it is not necessary for you to opt for the add-ons that can spike up the prices of your orders, then it is best not to purchase them as well. There are certain features wherein we offer a good standard option like the backing and border types. These two are among the most important things that you must consider when ordering custom embroidered patches.

Other types of borders, backings, threads and embroidery percentage that look fancy but are unnecessary should be avoided if you want to save money. If you are looking to get the best priced custom embroideries, of course, you should be aware of the reputation and customer feedback of the company you are planning to opt for. In addition, be aware that there are various things you can do to lessen the total cost of your orders, such as purchasing in bulk, instead of buying only a few of these items from time to time.

These are just some tips to help you save time and money when purchasing patches. If you want to learn more about the things we offer, kindly check our website. We offer a free quote and you can definitely trust that we can provide you high quality products and add-ons and create designs that fit the purpose and theme of each patch you order. We will see to it that they can clearly convey your message.

 Author Bio is your source for custom patches online with affordable price. Get a free quote for your custom patches today!

Hints That A Callaway Golf Item On Sale Might Be Fake

There are many tricks counterfeiters use to get their items sold in an instant. If you’re shopping for Callaway Golf products online, look out for possible hints that the item you’re eyeing might be fake. How do bogus sellers attract buyers to get their clubs?

Here are some of the lures these sellers use to trap buyers into their snares.

The Perfect Rating
Golf PuttersA 5-star rating or 100% positive customer feedback is typical to see on a counterfeiter’s profile. If you closely analyze the reviews, you will see that the score often shows only a few hundred individuals leaving feedback and that the feedback comes mostly from other sellers and not from actual buyers. A strong hint that the seller is a counterfeiter is if the positive feedback comes from transactions made over 6 months ago. If the reviews are more than 6 months old, you will no longer be able to view what the supposed buyer purchased or what the seller sold because the postings have most likely been archived by the website.

The Pressure Sale

If an item is being sold with an eye-catching “Buy Now” button and at incredibly low price, be extremely wary. These features are typically meant to entice the buyer to take advantage of the great deal right away before someone else gets it. Bogus sellers often sell a large quantity of clubs in different auctions that are set to expire at roughly the same time. This is so they can discard their inventories before anyone can give a feedback. A good deal for Callaway Golf equipment might not always come handy, but if you’re patient and wise enough to apply these simple tips, you will eventually get your hands on one.

“New Clubs” Listing
Callaway GolfA counterfeiter usually lists the clubs as new and shows the same stock image for all of the golf clubs they’re selling. Callaway Golf and other companies implement strict rules on who can legally resell their products. If people can buy brand new clubs for a significantly lower price online, why would an authorized retailer or the company itself sell the same item for twice or thrice the price? If you suspect that the image shown is not the actual image of the product being sold, ask the seller for a real picture. Often, the image will not match the product description. For instance, a picture for a left-handed club has a description that is meant for a right-handed club. Generic product descriptions are also quite common.

Suspiciously Low-Priced

More often than not, a counterfeiter takes time to explain that the reason he’s selling an item for an extremely low price is because he just won it in a raffle or tournament, or that it was a gift that he does not really need. These claims are highly common when you check listings online. Online sellers of fake Callaway Golf items and other brands often use reasons like these to justify the low price. Some desperadoes may even say that a family member is injured or someone just died and they need money only to deceive buyers into buying their bogus products.
With the abundance of online pro shops, it isn’t a shock that many sincere buyers are duped by unscrupulous sellers on a daily basis. But if you know how to look out for the signs and are cautious enough to examine the product first before hitting the checkout button, there is a great possibility that you will never fall victim under these faker’s unethical tactics.

On the brighter side, online shops like RockBottomGolf are always present to give you the best customer experience. All products displayed on the website are guaranteed authentic and the prices are the most reasonable you’ll ever find. You will discover great deals for Callaway Golf items and other well-known brands here, and you only need to visit the site to see how incredible the advantages are.

Author Bio:
Callaway offers a gathering of Callaway golf that suit the hitting the fairway capacities and spending arrangement of accommodating and master golfers alike.

How Motivational-Speaker-Success Creates More Productive Lifestyle

In our time, it is important to know the value of productivity especially now that people face tougher challenges in their everyday life. Whether it is work or family-related issue, we need to stay motivated in order to pursue a healthier relationship with others. In this site, we will be tackling some important concerns that most people around the world are struggling with. Motivational-speaker-success will reveal to you the secrets of living a happier life with your family and loved ones. Just remember why you need to live and work hard just so the important people in your life will also be contented.

However, before moving to the main topic, we want to share to you the following ingredients that actually serve as the reasons why people entrust their speaking engagements with us:

• We extremely depend on the benefits that we can provide to our clients so that they will achieve their goals in life. It’s really important to value the satisfaction of people after hearing what we have to say.

• It’s a must to write story-rich and substantive one-hour speech so that the audience will have something to learn from after listening to the speaker.

• Make sure that everything is different from what other speakers have to offer. The uniqueness and relevance of the dialogue is also essential in bringing people to their full potential.

Good Speakers


• Always remember that bad press is never good for your business. Preparedness is important in any speaking engagement because influencing people is one of the main objectives of public speaking.

• Present the speech to professionals so that they can provide constructive criticism in the work. Delivery style is also improved when others are criticizing the speaker. This also helps public speakers identify areas that should be improved and some pointers that make the speaker effective.

• Never rely on a friend who tells that your performance is already good. When it comes to improvements, we actually believe that more people should witness our performance so that feedbacks can help enhance our skills.

For those who are striving to become an excellent speaker, there are more rooms for improvements because new things just won’t stop to come out. On that note, public speakers are required to go with the trends and deliver more effective speech from, which people can learn from. The learning process include practice, training, skills development, and of course continual improvement to stay competitive and efficient.

Reaching One’s Full Potential through Motivation and Edifying Speech

Discovering your full potential needs time and effort. There are successful motivational speakers who didn’t exert much effort because their talent is natural. However, if you are one of those who should learn the hard way, motivational-speaker-success is here to help you. Our professional public speakers are ready to open your mind to the unlimited opportunities you can get in becoming an efficient speaker. With your time and dedication, rest assured that you can attain your hopes and dreams in life. The only thing you need to do is believe in yourself and you are sure to succeed.

Keynote speaker


To succeed in life, you need to know your strengths and weaknesses. Know that successful public speaking isn’t all about professionally reading the script but deeply penetrating the minds and hearts of the audience. It’s okay to memorize your speech or be familiar with your topics; however, you need to sound like you’re wholeheartedly immersed with the topic. Experience and expertise is important just like how essential it is to influence the listeners. The way you connect with the audience has something to say about your entire performance and effectiveness.

How Professional Motivational Speakers Thrive

With motivational-speaker-success, we ensure that clients are able to reach their full potential by just listening and absorbing the key pointers of the speaker. In fact, it won’t matter how meaningful or how clever you deliver your speech. The thing is that your audience is able to absorb every important detail that they need to understand. Also, public speakers need to get inside the mind, heart and soul of the listeners for a more intimate discussion. This is what we always tell our audience; listen and embrace all the opportunities shared by people who are more experienced and knowledgeable about life.

Making the audience feel just like what you really feel means successful speaking engagement. This can be achieved through confidence and mastery of what you’re doing. At motivational-speaker-success, eye contact is important since it is the point where the audience drives more interest in what the speaker has to say. For some, humor is needed to connect with people and avoid them from getting bored. We believe in that too although we focus more on the learning that our audience should get from our keynote speakers. Check out our site for more details.

Top Ten Essential Tools Every Article Writer Should Have

As an article writer, your basic job description is to write high-quality, original content for the client. You might be asked to write random articles or there might be a specific topic that you have to write about. It is also a part of your job to ensure that your article passes the keyword density requirement the client has set.

If you want to be able to write good articles, then you have to hone your skills. It is important that you are good at written English. It is rare for a client to ask for articles that are written in other language, though it is not impossible for you to get a request for writing non-English articles – especially if you know other languages. Honing your English skills will become a good weapon for you to use in article writing.


Speaking of weapons for article writing, you have other things you have to prepare to become a better article writer. If you want to become good at article writing, then you better bookmark or download some simple tools for your trade. These are simple tools that you should not overlook.

Here are some of the tools an article writer should add to his or her arsenal:

  1. Word processor – this is the program that will allow you to write your article digitally. With a word processor, you have the ability to create, edit, delete, or review content.
  2. Dictionary – having a dictionary will allow you to determine the meaning behind difficult words, especially when you are reading technical or academic references.
  3. Thesaurus – using synonyms is common in article writing. That is necessary if you do not want your written content to be tagged as plagiarized. To have an easier time finding a word’s synonym, you should have a Thesaurus.
  4. Plagiarism checker – this tool helps check for duplicate content on the Web. It will compare what you have written to the thousands of articles online to see if there is a match. You can obtain a premium account or you can look for free tools online.
  5. Grammar and spell checker – if you are not confident with your work in terms of grammar and spelling, then the grammar and spell checker should be a good tool to have. It will help you find grammar issues and spelling mistakes in your article.
  6. Keyword density checker – there are clients who require that a certain article pass a certain keyword density percentage. Keyword density basically refers to the frequency by which the keyword appears in the whole article.
  7. Word count tool – this tool helps you count how many words you have already written for an article. Articles need to follow a specific word count limit. Most of the word processors nowadays should already have built-in counters.
  8. Idea generator apps – this is the kind of app that will allow you to generate ideas on what to write. As an article writer, you will definitely encounter situations when you do not know what to write. By just pressing a button, you can get out of the writing slump you are in.
  9. Deadline beater app – the said app is extremely helpful for freelance writers. As a freelance writer, you are in-charge of your own time. If you have the deadline beater app, an app which helps you keep track of your deadlines, you can meet your client’s submission time without fail.
  10. Time scheduler app – you may replace the deadline beater apps you have with the time scheduler app. You may have them simultaneously too. This app allows you to schedule your time to efficiently go about your day-to-day work without problems.